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The Complex Effects of Glyphosate: Environmental Benefits and Risks

RoundUp, initially trademarked by Monsanto in the 1970s, has been widely used by farmers to kill weeds and protect crops, particularly after the creation of Roundup-resistant seeds. 

This herbicide, with glyphosate as its key ingredient, has faced significant legal challenges due to concerns about its health and environmental impacts. Recent lawsuits have brought this issue into the spotlight, as it raises questions about the safety of glyphosate and its long-term effects on ecosystems. 

These legal battles and the associated research have sparked a broader discussion about the role of such chemicals in environmental conservation and the need for careful consideration of their impacts.

In this article, we’re going to take a close look at how RoundUp, particularly glyphosate, affects the environment—in more ways than you may think.

Negative Environmental Impacts of RoundUp

The extensive use of glyphosate, the key component in RoundUp, has led to the development of glyphosate-resistant weeds, posing significant challenges in agriculture. These resistant weeds compromise crop yields and push farmers to use higher weed-killer concentrations.

A notable consequence has been the decline in sustainable farming practices like conservation tillage, especially in soybean production. From 1998 to 2016, as glyphosate resistance spread among weeds, farmers increasingly abandoned conservation tillage and no-till practices. 

This shift led to environmental harm, including water quality degradation and climate issues, with an estimated cost of nearly $245 million, mainly due to increased fuel emissions from additional tillage.

Impact on Soil and Plant Health

Glyphosate interferes with the shikimate pathway, crucial for both plants and significant microbial groups, hindering essential amino acid production. This interference causes a gradual death in plants and diminishes their resistance to root pathogens.

The widespread use of glyphosate has also resulted in its accumulation in soil and water, which adversely affects microbial communities vital for plant health. These changes in microbial dynamics can increase plants’ susceptibility to diseases, negatively impacting their growth and overall health.

Spread Beyond Application Sites

In the United States, the utilization of glyphosate dramatically increased from under 5,000 metric tons per year in 1987 to over 80,000 metric tons by 2007. Despite this surge, the monitoring of its environmental impacts was not adequately prioritized. 

Glyphosate’s extensive spread beyond application sites leads to significant environmental issues—it remains in the soil and leaches into groundwater, disrupting soil and aquatic ecosystems.

This widespread contamination affects soil microbial activity, plant health, and aquatic systems, contributing to problems such as river eutrophication.

Legal Challenges and Lawsuits of RoundUp

As of late 2023, the litigation surrounding RoundUp has reached significant proportions with over 4,239 open lawsuits and a total of 4,700 cases filed in federal multidistrict litigation in California.

Bayer, the current owner of RoundUp, proposed a substantial $11 billion settlement to resolve thousands of existing claims.

The allegations in these lawsuits are grave, with plaintiffs claiming that RoundUp caused cancers, particularly non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and accusing Monsanto (acquired by Bayer) of failing to warn the public about the risks. 

Revelations from the “Monsanto Papers” further complicated the situation, suggesting that Monsanto may have known about the carcinogenic risks of glyphosate and attempted to influence regulatory bodies and obscure scientific evidence.

In June 2023, Bayer agreed to a $6.9 million settlement with New York Attorney General Letitia James for misleading consumers about RoundUp’s environmental safety.

This settlement highlights the broader environmental concerns related to RoundUp, with the settlement funds directed toward mitigating pesticide impacts on pollinators and aquatic species.

Response to Lawsuits and Regulatory Changes

As a result of these lawsuits, Bayer has announced its decision to cease the sale of RoundUp for residential use starting in 2023. However, RoundUp will continue to be available for commercial and professional uses. 

This decision reflects a significant shift in how glyphosate-based products are marketed and sold. Several local and global legislative bodies have moved to restrict or outright ban their use, particularly in public spaces and areas close to water bodies, to minimize environmental and health risks. 

Why Banning Glyphosate May Affect Biodiversity

Environmentalists and conservationists are concerned that banning or restricting glyphosate could make it harder to control invasive plant species, which are a threat to native ecosystems and biodiversity. 

Glyphosate was extremely effective at weed control and was used particularly for environmental restoration projects and land care programs. 

Without it, there’s a risk that harmful plant species like Phragmites could spread more, which will crowd out native plants and evict certain mammals like elk and deer, fowl like ducks and their ducklings, fish like the June sucker, and more from their native habitats. 

Moreover, there might be a need to use other herbicides or methods, which could also have negative environmental effects.

This creates a complex dilemma for conservation, as it involves finding a balance between protecting biodiversity and assessing the risks and impacts of different weed control strategies.


Banning glyphosate presents a complex challenge. While it is effective against invasive species and crucial for maintaining certain ecosystems, its environmental and health impacts are significant. The increasing weed resistance to glyphosate further complicates the picture. 

Hopefully, a balanced approach that involves adopting alternative weed control methods while addressing the challenges these alternatives present can be achieved for sustainable biodiversity and ecosystem management.

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