Dark complexion or dark skin of humans is highly enriched in melanin pigments especially eumelanin. This melanin pigment is normally present in skin, but it’s overproduction cause hyperpigmentation. This hyperpigmentation or dark skin mostly affects the sun-exposed surfaces especially face and hands. Sometimes this hyperpigmentation may also occur as a result of hormonal imbalance such as during pregnancy or due to some disease such as Addison disease.
This dark complexion irritates the people because people considered the beauty lies in fair complexion. Therefore, dark skin color has made the people conscious and propels them to use the formula or such whitening chemicals which not only lighten their skin but also destroy their skin badly.
Causes of Dark Complexion or Hyperpigmentation
1- Genetic Causes
Most of the people have darkened skin due to congenital or genetical conditions such as
- Acanthosis nigricans
- Incontinent pigment
- Xeroderma pigmentosum
2- Hormonal Causes
Addison Disease (HYPOADRENALISM)
Addison disease is defined as chronic adrenocortical insufficiency. Due to increase ACTH production in Addison disease, the production of melanin pigment of mucus membranes and skin increases. This melanin deposited evenly but sometimes it deposits in patches especially around mucous membranes of lips and nipples.
Mechanism Of Melanin Deposition
When cortisol secretion is decreased from the adrenal gland, the negative feedback of cortisol secretion to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland is also depressed. This depressed negative feedback allows a large amount of ACTH production and increases the amount of MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone). Tremendous ACTH production causes the formation of melanin by the melanocytes.
It refers to hypersecretion of adrenocorticoids such as cortisol. Adenoma or tumor in pituitary glands and abnormal function of the hypothalamus stimulates excess ACTH release. This high ACTH production causes the synthesis of melanin pigment by melanocytes as MSH does.
Hormonal imbalance during pregnancy causes hyperpigmentation especially around nipples, cheeks, and knuckles due to the high production of melanin pigment.
3- ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES
Dark complexion may also be caused by exposure to environmental factors that include
Sunlight (the main cause)
Harmful, toxic chemicals
4- Other Common Causes
Other Common Causes of hyperpigmentation include:
- Diabetic dermopathy
Symptoms Might Occur With Dark Complexion
Dark human skin is itself a symptom of other health conditions such as Cushing disease or Addison disease. But sometimes it may cause other symptoms that might occur with hyperpigmentation or darkened skin. They include
- Itching, burning sensation
- Warmth, swelling
- Loss of self-confidence
- Lack of interest in daily life
- Patchy, uneven tone
How Can I Get Rid Of Dark Complexion?
There are millions of people who waste their lots of money on cosmetic products to turn their hyperpigmentation into even tone because dark complexion is a big irritation to them. But most of the people don’t know about the beneficial ingredients which are truly helpful to turn their dark complexion into the fair complexion.
The best tips to get fair complexion and even skin tone are below
1- Drink Water
Drink plenty of water to get fair complexion. Take at least 12 glass of water daily even in the winter season. It allows the body to wash away the toxins by drinking plenty of water. You can also take plenty of drinks, fresh juices to stay hydrated. Moisturize your skin. Limit taking caffeine, coffee to maintain your hydration. Don’t ignore this drinking water during the winter season.
2- Apply Sunscreen
Sun is the major cause of hyperpigmentation due to harmful ultraviolet rays coming out it. It causes the overproduction of melanin pigment in the skin. Therefore, always use sunscreen to protect your skin from the direct exposure of sunlight. Apply a layer of any sunblock on your skin when you are on go. This layer keeps your skin covered and prevents the production of melanin pigment. It not only prevents the skin from sunlight but also keeps the skin hydrated.
3- Lemon Juice
Lemon is considered an amazing skin lightening agent. It has many antioxidants that act as a bleaching agent and lighten your pigmented areas. You can use it directly on darkened areas by rubbing its slices or you can use it in drink form. Take a glass of water and add 4 to 5 drops of lemon juice and mix it well before drinking. You can also apply lemon juice on your skin by mixing it with honey. Lemon juice removes the freckles, lighten your skin tone and reduce the blemishes
4- Aloe Vera Leaves
Aloe Vera is being traditionally used for many skin issues such as uneven tone, freckles, melasma, acne spots, and dark circles. It has the ability to lighten the blemishes, acne marks, and melasma. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties due to its two majors complete i.e aloesin and aloin. These components are helpful for skin brightness and skin glow. You can take a fresh aloe vera leave to apply it directly on your face or may also use aloe Vera gel.
5- Licorice Roots
Licorice Roots are natural products for all sensitive skin, darkened skin, and acne prone skin. Licorice Roots are enriched in the Glabridin component which has a strong ability to fade dark spots and block melanin production. Many cosmetic companies use this natural herbal product in their artificial skin whitening creams.
How to use licorice root for skin?
You can use it by making a skin toner of licorice. Take 2 cups of water and boil it for 10 minutes. Then add licorice powder in this boiled water and heat it for 20 minutes on low flame. After that, let cool this boiled water and strained it. Add this licorice skin toner in any spray bottle and apply it three times a day.