Diabetes Mellitus is a group of diseases that involve metabolic issues and associated with a high blood sugar level. It can occur at any age or can affect many people especially to predisposed persons. Glucose coming from your meal which you eat and insulin is a hormone in your body that helps to maintain the concentration of glucose in your blood.
Glucose is a by-product of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and other minerals which are part of our diet. This glucose is actually a powerhouse of the cell. It breaks to produce the energy in body cells, but its high level is too dangerous. It stores in the body cells and can cause serious problems for eyes, kidneys, liver, muscles, pancreas, and spleen.
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How Glucose Is Maintained In Blood By Insulin?
Insulin is a hormone which produces by the beta cells of the pancreas. This insulin release into the blood, bind with the extra blood glucose molecule, and get entered into the adipose tissues and muscles of the body. Thus, extra glucose is stored in body tissues and the level of glucose remains the same in blood. But in diabetes mellitus when insulin production is insufficient or the body’s cell becomes disabled to utilize the body insulin, additional glucose remains in the blood which results in the high blood sugar level. This high blood sugar level then stores into the body organs and destroy them badly.
In contrast to the insulin hormone, there is also a hormone in the body that increases the concentration of glucose in the blood. In other words, it is the antagonist of insulin and known as Glucagon. At normal conditions, insulin and glucagon neutralize each other and effect and keep the blood sugar balanced or normal.
Types of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes can be of various types according to the age group of the people.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 Diabetes is the type of diabetes mellitus in which insulin is not produced or produced in an insufficient amount. This may be due to the burn out of beta cells of the pancreas or tumor of the pancreas. It mostly occurs in adults.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes is the type of diabetes mellitus in which the body becomes insensitive to utilize the body’s insulin well. Therefore, extra glucose remains in the blood and causes the destruction of body parts. It mostly occurs in obese people.
Gestational diabetes mellitus
Gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women due to variations in the hormones during pregnancy. It is specifically associated with pregnancy.
It is the diabetes mellitus that occur in the newborns or children due to family history, genetically absent beta cells, or any other congenital cause.
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus
Why diabetes is becoming so common all around the world? Why leg amputation is done in diabetics? Lots of risks or factors are all around us that welcomed diabetes. There are no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved:
For Type 1 Diabetes
- Autoimmune destruction of beta cells
- Viral or bacterial infection
- Idiopathic causes
- Chemical toxins within food
- Tumor of pancreas
For Type 2 Diabetes
- Poor or unhealthy lifestyle
- Physical inactivity
- Lack of exercise
- High fat intake or poor fibers intake
- Strong family history
- Poor diet
For Gestational diabetes
- Family history
- Overweight or obese
- Might be Suffered from polycystic ovary syndrome
- Have had a large baby weighing
- Previous diabetic pregnancy
- Previous history of diabetes
Other minor causes are also included which might be the factor for Diabetes Mellitus.
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome or PCOS
- Pancreatitis or pancreatectomy
- Steroid-induced diabetes
- Cushing syndrome