Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Complete Overview

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of Mellitus diabetes that occurs after the age of 40 years. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition of diabetes that affects the procedure your body uses to metabolize the sugar (glucose is an important source of the fuel for your body).

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is of four types according to its onset of action, mode of action, and the age group.

  1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or IDDM)
  2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or NIDDM)
  3. Juvenile diabetes mellitus (diabetes mellitus in adulthood)
  4. Gestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes mellitus during pregnancy)

In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body either resists the action of insulin or the body is unable to produce enough insulin to maintain the normal glucose. Insulin is a hormone that regulates the movement of glucose into your cells like muscles, adipose tissues, liver, etc.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also known as adult-onset or maturity-onset diabetes mellitus. But nowadays many children are diagnosed as type 2 diabetes due to a rise in childhood obesity or strong family history.

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus can progress gradually and lead to many complications if left untreated or undiagnosed. Excessive blood glucose begins to accumulate in the organs and leads to end-stage kidney failure, liver diseases, eye problems like diabetic retinopathy, heart diseases, nerve de-arrangements. The risk of stroke, heart failure, amputation of hands or feet also increases with the advanced stage of diabetes mellitus, if left untreated.
Key Points of type 2 diabetes

  • It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM because it doesn’t need insulin therapy but needs healthy nutrition, weight loss, and a healthy lifestyle.
  • Type 2 diabetes occurs mostly after the age of 40s.
  • Happens mostly in obese or overweight persons.
  • Develops due to the insensitivity of the body’s cell for insulin or insufficient production of insulin hormone.
  • It doesn’t require any proper therapy or medication to treat but required weight reduction, daily walk or exercise, low fat intake, and taking less sugar.

Causes for type 2 diabetes mellitus

For Type 2 diabetes, the exact procedure is unknown. Type 2 diabetes happens when your body becomes resistant to insulin or when your pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. This resistance is although due to genetics and environmental factors, such as being obese and inactive. So light is thrown on the causes of type 2 diabetes

  • Genetically
  • Obesity or overweight
  • Physically inactive or lack of physical activity
  • Lack of exercises or walk
  • A poor diet like high intake of fats or low intake of fibers
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Overeating
  • Sleep immediately after taking a meal

Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes

Signs and symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes often appear gradually. Furthermore, you may have type 2 diabetes for many years and not aware of it. Most of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus are,

  • Increased blood glucose
  • Increased thirst
  • Unexplained weight reduction
  • Increased urination
  • Tired, fatigue
  • Increased appetite
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent infections
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Darkening of skin, especially in the armpits and neck

Management Of Type 2 Diabetes

There is no proper cure for type 2 diabetes. However, type 2 diabetes mellitus can be controlled with weight management, healthy nutrition, healthy exercise as well as sound sleep. No insulin injection or medicine is given because the body already has sufficient insulin. No other medication is needed but, Unfortunately, type 2 diabetes has a tendency to progress with the time, and then medications may be needed.

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