Epistaxis: Overview, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Causes and Treatment

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EPISTAXIS
EPISTAXIS: Nose Bleeding

Overview OF Epistaxis

Epistaxis is bleeding from the nose. Bleeding can range from a trick to a strong current and can range from a minor annoyance to life-threatening bleeding. Most nasal bleeding arises from a plexus of vessels in the anterior septum. Less common but more severe are posterior nasal pores, which depend on the vomer bone in the anterior septum, or the inferior or middle turbine posteriorly.

Posterior nasal perforation occurs in patients who have atherosclerotic vessels or have bleeding disorders and have nasal or sinus surgery. The inside of the nose is covered with moist, delicate tissue (mucosa) that has an abundant supply of blood vessels near the surface. When this tissue is injured, even by minor nicks or scratches, there is bleeding in these blood vessels, sometimes heavy. The frontal part of the nose, called the anterior nasal cavity, is very common because it is the most accessible area for injury. The most frequent location is the nasal septum, the wall between the two sides of the nose.

In most cases, this type of hemorrhage is not severe, treatment for epistaxis considered for this. This can usually be stopped with some local pressure and little patience. Only rarely is a choosy life-threatening or fatal. In these cases, bleeding (severe bleeding) is usually from an artery in a posterior place, high and deep in the nose. Poor bleeding usually occurs at the back of the throat, but can also flow from both nasal cavities.

Also, in most cases of severe hemorrhage, the person has another health problem, such as high blood pressure or bleeding disorder, or the person takes a blood thinning medicine that slows down the process of blood clotting. Some people are more likely to have a runny nose due to their environment, work history, health problems, or the use of drugs that increase their tendency to bleed.

Symptoms of Epistaxis

Bleeding usually begins at one nostril. In case of heavy bleeding, it can fill both nasal cavities and overgrow the nasopharynx. In some cases, blood may drip from the throat back to the stomach. In such a situation the person is likely to vomit. Common symptoms of excessive hemorrhage are:

  • Excessive blood loss can cause dizziness and fainting, confusion, loss of alertness, and mild weakness. However, the condition is rare.
  • Bleeding from other parts of the body such as teeth, gums, nasal, etc. indicates clotting of blood.
  • Excess bleeding from other parts of the body, such as bleeding gums while brushing teeth, bleeding in urine or bowel movements, or easy bruising also indicates an inability to clot blood.

Diagnosis of Epistaxis

In otherwise healthy people, most mild anterior nozzles can be self-diagnosed and treated at home. If your hemorrhage is severe and does not respond to first aid measures, you will need to see a doctor immediately.

The doctor will review your health history and current medications. He or she will also ask you to estimate the amount of blood you have lost, which is usually based on how long you have been bleeding and the number of soaked towels or tissues you have used. Next, the doctor will examine your nose to determine where the bleeding is located. If necessary, she can insert a light, tube-like instrument called an endoscope into your nose to visualize the site of bleeding. Blood tests can be performed to check for any bleeding abnormalities.

Causes Of Epistaxis

The major factors that cause epistaxis or nasal bleeding is classified locally (fracture due to a sharp blow, or nose-lift, etc.). Nasal bleeding usually starts from inside the entrance of the nostrils, at the hard part of the nasal septum. The blood vessels of this region are fragile, burst easily and blood starts coming out of them. Potentially replicating factors are:

  • Structural or physical deformities such as hereditary bleeding.
  • Prolonged use of nasal sprays and nasal steroids (especially prolonged or inappropriate use of nasal steroids).
  • Middle ear barotrauma due to the sudden change of pressure.
  • Surgeries such as functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
  • Stay in contact with hot, dry air for a long time.
  • Allergic rhinitis.
  • Dissected or perforated nasal septum.
  • Cocaine use.
  • Infectious disease (cold) or high blood pressure.
  • Connective tissue disease.
  • Some medicines such as aspirin, warfarin, isotretinoin, desmopressin, etc.
  • Pregnancy (due to rare, high blood pressure and hormonal changes).
  • Vascular disorder.
  • Vitamin C and Vitamin K deficiency.

Prevention and treatment for epistaxis

The following precautions and treatments for epistaxis:

  • Quit the habit of nose-eye browning.
  • Always inflate your nose slowly.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Use a humidifier in winter when the indoor climate is dry.
  • Using saline nasal spray to retain moisture inside the nose.
  • Avoid any facial trauma by wearing seatbelt or shoulder harness while driving and using headgear while playing sports.

Prognosis

With little patience and pressure, almost all anterior nasal forearms respond to simple first aid measures. Even rare hemorrhages that require doctor care can usually be successfully treated with careful packing, packing, or other options. Even severe postoperative hemorrhage can be controlled at home with appropriate first aid measures. Some people who have excessive bleeding, multiple medical problems or who are taking anticoagulant medications may require hospitalization for treatment of hemorrhage.

Conclusion

Epistaxis is bleeding from the nose. Bleeding can range from a trick to a strong current and can range from a minor annoyance to life-threatening bleeding. Most nasal bleeding arises from a plexus of vessels in the anterior septum. Less common but more severe are posterior nasal pores, which depend on the vomer bone in the anterior septum, or the inferior or middle turbine posteriorly. The blood vessels of this region are fragile, burst easily and blood starts coming out of them. Potentially replicating factors are Structural or physical deformities such as hereditary bleeding… Quit the habit of nose-eye browning is the treatment for epistaxis.