Nose Disease: Overview and Treatment

Overview

The nasal cavity or nasal passage is presented as two channels separated by bony cartilage called umbilical cartilage. They communicate with the outside through the nose and open backward into the nasopharynx at the middle choanae in case of nose disease. The sidewall of the nasal cavity presents an uneven surface: on it, in fact, it consists of 3 bony laminate (sometimes 4) coated with mucus. An inferior turbinate nasal cavity, a middle turbine, a revolving high, and sometimes a supreme turbine are each identified.

The underlying location beneath the turbines is called the ‘mitus’, where communication occurs with the Paranasal sinus. Paranasal sinuses are pneumatized cavities of the facial mass that develop during the first few years of life and are sustained by the nasal passages. They include:

  • Maxillary sinus: two large symmetric cavities located below the orbits;
  • Frontal sinus: irregularly shaped, involved in the thickness of the frontal bone above the root of the nose;
  • Ethnocide cells: a complex system of small cavities that are two erythrocyte labyrinths.

Nasal functions are different:

  • Respiratory function: The nose controls the airflow through very sophisticated central control systems that ensure the correct oxygen content according to the different needs of the organism;
  • Olfactory action: permitted by a specific epithelium (neuroepithelium) located on the roof of each nostril;
  • Defensive function: is guaranteed by a series of systems that provide a barrier against heavy particles, microparticles, and pathogenic microorganisms.

4 Major Nose Disease

Here are 4 major nose diseases and their explanation:

1- Rhinitis

The most common form of acute inflammation of the nasal abscess is characterized by an acute rhinitis epidemic. This disease is commonly known as cold. This is supported by a viral etiology, especially rhinovirus and Parainfluenza viruses. It is a feature associated with abundant nasal discharge in nasal respiration. Potential bacterial infections are characterized by mucopurulent secretion.

It should be remembered, however, that medical therapy relies on physiological factors (deviation of the nasal septum, overgrowth of the inferior turbinate, pneumatization of the middle turbine) which, along with activation during acute and chronic inflammation, may facilitate poor nasal ventilation.

A significant portion of nasal inflammation (20%) is characterized by allergic rhinitis. These are caused by an immune response to specific external factors known as allergies. They are distinguished as seasonal allergens (e.g. pollen) and perennials (e.g. dust mites, animal hair). Symptoms such as nasal respiratory blockage, clear nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal itching, low sense of smell, eye involvement (allergic oculonitis) are seen. Diagnosis is performed through nasal endoscopic examination with flexible instrumentation, and optical fibers through specific allergy testing. Medical treatments include local corticosteroids with antihistamines, reduced systemic absorption, and potential sublingual vaccine therapy.

2- Sinusitis

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus. There are three types of sinusitis: the first is acute sinusitis, a type of inflammation that has a rapid onset and can be treated with appropriate medical treatment; The second is sub-acute sinusitis that lasts for three months and is also curable with specific treatments; The third is chronic sinusitis, and is caused by repeated acute episodes or previous infections that were poorly treated. Sinusitis can be viral, bacterial, or fungal.

Many predisposing factors in the origin of sinusitis such as structural changes of the nose; Immune deficiency; Dental infections and more are still considered as initiatory aspects. The most common symptoms of sinusitis are: persistent purulent nasal discharge, pain in the facial area according to the affected sinus, decreased or absent olfactory ability.

3- Nasal polyp

It is a multifunctional disease characterized by the edematous reaction of the nasal submucosa with polyp formation. Nasal polyps thicken the mucous sac due to the recurrence of inflammatory events, such as allergies, fungal infections, aspirin intolerance, autoimmune diseases (Churg – Strauss syndrome), nasal tumors (symptomatic polyposis), mucociliary abnormalities. A patient suffering from nasal polyps complains of nasal breathing, decreased nasal secretion, or complete loss of smell, a change in voice.

4- Fractures of the nasal bones

The nasal pyramid, due to its particular location, is often involved in trauma affecting the face, creating fractures of the nasal bones, a relatively frequent occurrence. They are associated with nasal bleeding (nosebleeds), nasal inflammation, and in some cases skin lesions and / or other fractures of the facial skeleton. Early detection of a fracture of the nasal bones allows rapid healing by surgical reduction.

Reducing the fracture leads to an alignment of the bone stump. The operation must necessarily be performed within 7-10 days after the trauma, because, after this period, it is not possible to refill the nasal bones due to abnormal consolidation of bone segments. In these cases, it may result in a diluent of the nasal pyramid, which is soluble through rhinoplasty.

Treatment Of Nose Disease

Treatment for the cure of nose disease is as follows:

Nasal corticosteroid:

These nasal sprays help prevent and treat inflammation. Examples include fluticasone, triamcinolone, betonies, mometasone, and dexamethasone. If the sprays are not effective enough, your doctor may recommend rinsing with a saline solution mixed with drops of bison ide or using a nasal mist of the solution. Saline nasal irrigation with nasal spray or solution reduces drainage and removes irritation and allergies.

Oral or injected corticosteroids:

These drugs are used to relieve inflammation from severe sinusitis, especially if you also have nasal polyps. Oral corticosteroids can cause serious side effects when used over a long period of time, so they are used only to treat severe symptoms.

Aspirin for the treatment of aspirin:

If you have aspirin reactions, that cause sinusitis. Under medical supervision, you are gradually given large doses of aspirin to increase your tolerance.

nose disease
Image Source

Conclusion

  • The sidewall of the nasal cavity presents an uneven surface: on it, in fact, it consists of 3 bony laminae (sometimes 4) coated with mucus. An inferior turbinate nasal cavity, a middle turbine, a revolving high, and sometimes a supreme turbine are each identified. Paranasal sinuses are pneumatized cavities of the facial mass that develop during the first few years of life and are sustained by the nasal passages. Nose diseases are: Rhinitis, Sinusitis, Nasal polyp