Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of diabetes mellitus which affects young individuals before the age of 40s. Type 1 diabetes causes are discussed later. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes occurs after the age of 40s due to age-related changes, obesity, or an unhealthy lifestyle. As this occurred in adults, it is also termed as Juvenile Diabetes mellitus. In this type, blood glucose levels elevated in young people due to the deficiency of insulin hormone. Therefore, additional glucose stays in the blood and begins to deposit in peripheral organs like kidneys, liver, eyes, or brain and causes many serious complications.
Normal Blood Sugar Level & How to Check the Blood Sugar?
A fasting normal blood glucose level should be less than 100mg/dL. Above the 100 or up to 125mg/dL is considered as prediabetes, whereas, above the 125mg/dL is referred to as diabetes mellitus. If the age is below the 40s, it is labeled as Type 1 diabetes. This fasting blood glucose level is checked by the finger prick test. If it diagnosed early, it can be cured completely by taking medication or injections. But if it diagnosed late, it can complicate the other body systems.
Type 1 Diabetes Causes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies of your own body destroy the beta cells of your pancreas. Beta cells are the chief cells of the islands of Langerhans, which produce the insulin hormone. The insulin hormone is responsible for the lowering of blood sugar levels after a meal. Normally, after the meal, when the blood sugar level is elevated, this hormone releases in sufficient amount to lower or balance the blood glucose level. But in diabetes, due to the destruction of beta cells, insulin doesn’t produce.
Blood sugar remains raised in the absence of insulin because insulin is a hormone that combines with glucose molecules and gets entered into adipose tissues as well as in muscles. The common causes of beta cells destruction or deficient production of insulin in type 1 diabetes are:
- Autoimmune diseases
- Genetic predisposition
- Infectious diseases
- Hypertensive patients
These above causes affect insulin production and predisposed the condition of diabetes mellitus.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes mellitus manifests as:
- High blood sugar level
- Increase hunger
- Increase urination
- Nerve degeneration
- Increase appetite
- Weight loss despite a good appetite
- Increased thirst
These symptoms are appeared in type 1 diabetic patients due to a high blood glucose level.
Target Level of Blood Sugar for Diabetes Individuals
For 20+ diabetics, blood sugar should be
- Fasting blood sugar Less than 100mg/dL
- Before meal 70 – 130mg/dL
- After meal Less than 180mg/dL
- Before exercise 100mg/dL ( if taking insulin)
- Bedtime 100- 140 mg/dL
Treatment Plan for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
1- Insulin Therapy
As you have known, insulin hormone is deficient in type 1 diabetes, therefore, insulin injections or tablets are prescribed to the patients. Insulin injections or tablets are advised to the patients to take before the meal or after the meal.
2- Diet Control
It is very important to control your diet because type 1 diabetes can lead to type 2 diabetes in the future. Therefore, avoid salty food, sweets, junk foods or fatty foods to stay healthy. Do walk daily and exercise too.
Complications of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes can proceed to type 2 diabetes in the future if it is left untreated. It can lead to further complications like eyes, kidneys, or nerves. Additional glucose begins to store or deposit around the eye and cause diabetic retinopathy, around the kidneys and cause nephropathy and around the nerves and cause neuropathy. Most common complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus summarized as the:
- Kidney failure
- Liver cirrhosis
- Diabetic Retinopathy
- Weight Gain