Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a diabetes of the young people, below the age of 40s. What is type 1 diabetes? What are type 1 diabetes causes? It is a type of diabetes mellitus in which blood sugar level is raised among young people due to the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Diabetes mellitus is of two types. Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs after the age of 40s due to obesity or insulin resistance. Both types are different from each other in all aspects. Type 1 diabetes can progress to type 2 diabetes in later life.
In type 1 diabetes mellitus, blood glucose levels raised due to the absence of insulin. Therefore, in type 1 diabetes mellitus insulin injection or tablets are given to the patients to lower the blood sugar level. Whereas in type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin is sufficient in the body but body cells become resistant to respond to the insulin.
Role of the Insulin
Once a significant number of islet cells are damaged, your pancreas will not produce little or no insulin. Insulin is an endocrine hormone produced from the pancreas, an organ behind the stomach. The whole mechanism of insulin action is here:
- When a human takes a meal (any type), his carbohydrates, proteins or fats decomposed and convert into an ultimate product “GLUCOSE”. Thus, the amount of glucose is raised in blood immediately after the meal.
- In a normal person, insulin hormone is secreted in a sufficient amount after the meal. The insulin hormone binds with extra glucose and stored it into peripheral organs like muscles, adipose tissues, etc. Thus glucose level is lowered to its normal level.
- In type 1 diabetes, when less or no insulin is produced, extra glucose remains in the blood and elevates the blood sugar.
Type 1 Diabetes Causes
The exact causes of type 1 diabetes mellitus are unknown. But some causes are congenital or some are acquired. Type 1 diabetes causes are different from type 2 diabetes causes.
1- Congenital Causes
In some individuals, autoimmune antibodies are formed which fights against viruses or bacteria, mistakenly destroy its own body’s cell such as beta cells. Whereas in some people, insulin production is impaired genetically.
2- Acquired Causes
Environmental factors also play a vital role in developing type 1 diabetes in individuals. Such as
certain Bacteria trigger the body’s immune system against the beta cells.
Some viruses also affect the insulin-producing cells in predisposed individuals.
- Grave’s disease
- It is also common in grave’s disease.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes symptoms are the same as type 2 diabetes symptoms. Initially, symptoms are mild or subtle, but progress to the severe form. They include
- Heavy thirst or polydipsia
- The increased appetite (especially after eating)
- Frequent urination or polyuria
- Dry mouth
- Abdominal pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Unexplained weight loss (even you eating well and feel hungry)
- Blurring of vision
- Deep, heavy or labored breathing (this is medically known as Kussmaul respiration)
Frequent infections of the urinary tract or skin