Allergic conjunctivitis causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

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Overview:

Whenever your eyes are exposed to any dust particle or any infectious agent, it becomes red, itchy and watery. These are the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory disease of the eye in which sclera of the eye (whitish part of the eyeball) gets inflamed due to exposure of dust, fumes, pollen and mold spores. If you’re suffering from pollinizers and other seasonal allergies, you’ll also experience symptoms involving the nose and throat.

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Perennial allergic conjunctivitis may be a year-round allergic condition. These allergic responses are often associated with animal dander, dust, or other allergens present within the environment year round. Symptoms are almost like seasonal allergic conjunctivitis but tend to be milder. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is that the commonest sort of ocular allergy. As its name suggests, it’s associated with specific pollens that release spores during specific seasons: May and June (grass pollen) and August and September (ragweed pollen). Itching may be a dominant symptom in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis diagnosis, also as watery/mucus discharge, burning, and redness.

Symptoms and causes:

Most people with allergic conjunctivitis have problems with both eyes. Symptoms may appear quickly, soon after the eyes inherit contact with the allergen. In other cases, for instance, if eye drops are causing a reaction, symptoms may appear after 2 to 4 days.
Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis include:

  • Red or pink eyes:

The eyes become irritated because the capillaries, or small blood vessels, widen within the conjunctiva.

  • Pain:

This may affect one or both eyes. If an individual has painful, Bloodshot eyes, is sensitive to light, and their vision is affected, they ought to see a doctor directly.

  • Itchiness:

As the eyes are irritated, they’ll itch. Rubbing can make the itchiness worse.

  • Swollen eyelids:

The eyelids may brag when the conjunctiva becomes inflamed, or if the person has been rubbing those tons.

  • Soreness:

The inflammation may make the entire area feel sore and tender. Some people say the soreness seems like burning.

Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

People with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis will experience symptoms at certain times during the year, usually from early spring into summer, and sometimes into fall. Those with perennial allergic conjunctivitis are susceptible at any time of year. They’ll find symptoms are worse at certain times of the day than at others. If the eyelids are red, cracked, or dry, this might indicate contact conjunctivitis. Contact conjunctivitis and giant papillary conjunctivitis aren’t seasonal, and symptoms may occur at any time of year.

An allergy happens when the system overreacts to a substance. Most of the people don’t react during this thanks to dust, pollen, and other substances, but some are more susceptible.
The following allergens commonly cause allergic conjunctivitis:

  • pollen, as in hay fever
  • animal fur
  • eye drops
  • make-up
  • Dust mites.

Risk Factors

Risk factors of allergic conjunctivitis are as follows:

  1. Seasonal allergies
  2. Exposure to allergens to which you are sensitive

What are different complications of allergic conjunctivitis?

Complications of perennial or seasonal allergic conjunctivitis are rare. Allergic conjunctivitis can affect a person’s quality of life but doesn’t normally have a long-term impact on health. Complications can sometimes occur with derma to conjunctivitis and giant papillary conjunctivitis. The cornea may become inflamed. this is often referred to as keratitis, and it can cause ulcers to make on the cornea. This increases the danger of scarring and therefore the possibility of permanent vision loss.
Symptoms of keratitis are:

  • intense pain in the eye
  • sensitivity to light
  • blurred vision
  • a feeling that there is something in the eye
  • watery eyes

If these symptoms occur, the person should see a doctor.

Diagnosis:

Allergic conjunctivitis usually is diagnosed with a radical clinical exam and a careful history. Skin testing by an allergist may help identify the inciting allergens.

Prevention:

Your choice of therapy will depend upon the intensity of the allergic response. Since histamines cause most of the common symptoms related to seasonal allergic, antihistamines or histamine blockers are often effective.
If the allergy is caused by pets, try the following:

• keep pets out of the bedroom
• brush them regularly and wash them every 2 weeks
• wash their bedding regularly

If you’re visiting a house where there’s a pet, taking an antihistamine medicine one hour before may help reduce symptoms.

If pollen causes a reaction:

• stay inside and keep doors and windows closed when the count is high
• avoid areas with tons of grass, flowers, or trees
• use wraparound sunglasses to guard your eyes
• bathe and alter your clothes after being outside
• try to urge somebody else to chop the lawn for you

If house dust mites cause a reaction:

• avoid soft furnishings, like carpets and drapes
• use a vacuum with a HEPA filter
• choose anti-allergenic matrasses and bedding
• vacuum often, and mud with a clean, damp cloth